The province of South Kivu has an area of 69,130 km2 and its population was 3,028,000 in 1997, it is currently estimated at 3,500,000 inhabitants, an average density of 50.6 inhabitants per square kilometer. South Kivu is located east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, approximately between 1 ? 36 'South Latitude and 5 ? South Latitude on the one hand and 26 ? 47' East Longitude and 29 ? 20 'South on the other. East longitude on the other hand. The province is limited to the East by the Republic of Rwanda from which it is separated by the Ruzizi River and Lake Kivu, Burundi, Tanzania, separated from South Kivu by Lake Tanganyika.


The eastern border of South Kivu corresponds to the Western Rift Valley, in this collapsing ditch lodge lakes Kivu and Tanganyika. As for the lands found there, they can be grouped in two main groups: the lands of the base and the volcanic grounds, to which must be added a third set: the grounds which one finds at the bottom of the lakes Kivu, Tanganyika, as well as in the plain of Ruzizi.


The basement combines all of the pre-Middle Carboniferous lands and covers most of the western and central parts of the province, more than 70% of the province. These ancient lands are rich in minerals: cassiterite, gold, colombo-tantalite, wolframite etc. minerals exploited from the colonial period to the present day. The surroundings of Bukavu city are volcanic regions where basaltic rocks or even ancient lava rocks are found to INERA MULUNGU. Moreover Mount Kahuzi is an extinct volcano.

As for the relief, it is very varied. The very mountainous East is opposed to the Center and the West of the province where one meets respectively high plateaux and 11 low plateaus. This physical diversity is the origin of the name of the mountainous Kivu in the East and differs from the lower western countries. The high relief of the East is undoubtedly the extension of the chain of Mitumba exceeding sometimes 3,000 meters of altitude. However, a low relief is observed in the plain of Ruzizi from Uvira to Kamanyola.

Climate and vegetation

The main factors that determine the climates of South Kivu are latitude and altitude. The mountainous Kivu, that is to say the East of the province enjoys a mountain climate with mild temperatures where the dry season lasts 3 to 4 months from June to September. For example, Bukavu and Goma have an average annual temperature of 19 ? C, while the highlands of Minembwe, Mulenge, Kalonge and the Kahuzi-Biega mountains are even cooler. In these countries grow a mountain vegetation stepped and predominantly grassy.

On the other hand, the center and especially the West of South Kivu, in particular the territories of Shabunda and that of Mwenga know an equatorial climate, domain of the equatorial dense forest, because it rains abundantly and almost all the year.

However, the Ruzizi plain has a micro-climate, a tropical climate with a dry tendency and where the rains are somewhat weak (? 1.000 mm / year), the vegetation being a grassy savannah with spines strewn with cactus cactus. The rich flora of South Kivu is home to one of the world's best parks, Kahuzi-Biega, where mountain gorillas and a lush bamboo forest are found.


She is abundant. There are two mountain lakes, Lake Kivu (1,470 m). It is the deepest in Africa and the 2nd largest in the world after Lake Baikal (1,741 m) and Lake Tanganyika (773 m) and connected by the Ruzizi River. Lake Tanganyika is full of fish. As for Lake Kivu, it is very little fish because of the presence of carbon dioxide and methane.

The rivers of South Kivu belong to the watershed of the Congo River. Most of these streams originate in the eastern mountains and flow mostly to the west where they flow into the Lualaba River, others flow into the lakes.


The territories of Kabare, Walungu, Kalehe, Idjwi and the city of Bukavu experience two seasons: the dry season which lasts 3 months from June to September and the rainy season which lasts 9 months. The dry season experiences a high temperature and a scarcity of rains during all this period. It is at this moment that the marshy places are cultivated. The rainy season is in heavy rush but this last time with the disorderly felling of trees, the destruction of the environment and the overpopulation makes rain become more and more rare.

In forest areas such as Fizi, Mwenga and Shabunda located at the entrance of the equatorial forest, it rains heavily throughout the year. As for the territory of Uvira apart from the highlands, the rain begins to be so rare and the temperature increases more and more because of the concentration of the population resulting in the destruction of the environment.


In Kabare, Idjwi and Walungu, the soil is clayey and poorer due to erosion and overpopulation. This is why there are many land conflicts in this area and livestock farming decreases significantly due to lack of pasture.

In Idjwi the soil is still rich for agriculture but the problem of overpopulation makes more and more rare farmland, the soil is also clay. In Kalehe, there is also clay soil and rich because of its proximity to the forest. There are some gold deposits.

The territories of Shabunda, Mwenga and Fizi have a sandy soil very rich for agriculture and containing significant mineral wealth (gold, cassiterite, Coltan ...) The territory of Uvira also has a sandy soil favorable to the cultivation of rice and cotton. Its highlands with its mild climate are rather favorable to livestock.


The city of Bukavu, located south of Lake Kivu is the capital of South Kivu Province. Apart from its politico-administrative function, Bukavu is also the most important commercial, industrial, tourist, religious and intellectual city of the Province. Its population of about one million inhabitants, is experiencing a strong rural exodus accentuated mainly by the political disturbances due to the rebellions in the country since 1996. South Kivu is one of the three provinces coming from the old Kivu and n ' So there are no districts like North Kivu and Maniema. The province is divided into 8 rural territories and 3 municipalities. Each territory is divided into communities and each community into groups. The latter is finally divided into localities or villages.

Communes and Territories

B. Ibanda
C. Kadutu

It should be noted that the Territory of Shabunda alone occupies 36% of the area of the Province of South Kivu, roughly the equivalent of Rwanda (26,338 Km2).

Administrative organisation

Like the other provinces of the country, the Governor of the Province is assisted by two Vice-Governors, one of whom is in charge of Administration and Politics, and the other in charge of Economy, Finance and Development. The Mayor of Bukavu, the only city in the Province, is managed by a Mayor assisted by two Vice-Mayors.

At the head of each territory, there is a Territory Administrator and two Assistants Territory Administrators. Given the vastness of the territories, the central government has created administrative management positions led by administrators of resident assisting territories or by heads of administrative posts. It is in order to bring the rulers closer to the governed.

At the head of each group, there is a leader of a group often from the royal family directly or indirectly. Each group is made up of several villages headed by a chief of the village appointed and dismissed by the head of group after opinion of the head of the community. Under the 2nd Republic the villages were organized in other subgroups called Nyumba kumi (10 houses). The purpose of this organization was to imbue the entire population with the ideology of MPR and Mobutism. In South Kivu, all communities are chiefdoms. Customary authorities are therefore highly respected as guarantors of power and custom. They are often more listened to than the politico-administrative authority.

Political environment

The Province of South Kivu is experiencing an unstable political environment since the arrival of Rwandan refugees in 1994 and the takeover of power in Rwanda by the RPF. Events in neighboring Burundi have not failed to affect the political, social and even economic environment since the assassination of President NDADAYE. Then comes the AFDL war in 1996 followed by that of the RCD in 1998 and finally the recent events of May-June 2004 in Bukavu.

The political management of the Province becomes difficult. Each authority manages its area for the benefit of its political or ethnic affiliation as the case may be. All so-called liberation wars leave from South Kivu. Thus some compatriots known as "Mai-Mai" have also taken up arms to defend territorial integrity. Unfortunately some, without discipline, sow desolation wherever they go.

The "Interahamwe" who reign supreme in some countries are not worried and do what they want. This is how the people of South Kivu are no longer in their leadership. In the Walungu and Kabare territories not far from the City of Bukavu, three groups of Interahamwe are clearly identified without being put out of harm's way. These are: ALIR (Liberation Alliance for Rwanda). Very violent and aggressive, they stay in the Mugaba forest (forest that goes to Shabunda). They go out at night only to loot, rape and kill.

The FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda). Scattered in the forest like the ALIR, they have their headquarters in Nindja, mostly Ex-FAR, they consider themselves as the regular army of Rwanda. Less violent, they cause less hassle to the population and are content with weekly rations collected by village chiefs.

RASTA is a group that has entrenched itself from others. They are armed robbers who barricade roads to loot vehicles and passers-by. As violent as the ALIRs, they often associate with young neighborhood thugs to point out the targets. They kill and rape women, girls and children. Before the reunification of the country, they sometimes associated themselves with the Mai-Mai.

The people of Nindja live with them without problems. Note that ALIR and RASTA sometimes take women and girls to bring them into the forest.

Located in Lake Kivu between BUKAVU and GOMA and western Rwanda, the IDJWI Territory remained unscathed by the war, but suffered the effects. It had become like an extension of Rwanda via the prefecture of CYIBUYE. All attacks on KALEHE went through until the dismissal in May 2004 of his Administrator by the politico-military authorities of the Province.


Administrative subdivisions

In a general way the society is structured around the tribe. Each tribe is tied to its land. The people are therefore around their traditional chief who is the guarantor of unity and custom. Then comes the family whose most viable institution is the extended family. It plays an economic role as a unit of production and consumption, but also a social role because it is within it that express social relations and education of children.

The basis of his social organization is the force of the law of clan fraternity. Thus beyond the extended family there is the clan comprising families with a common ancestor. The unity of the clan is not only an economic and residential unit like the family but a strong solidarity among the members. At the level of Bukavu City and Uvira the situation is no longer the same, people keep the idea of their original tribe but tend to live in isolation within their respective families. However, there is still some solidarity in neighborhoods like Kadutu in Bukavu.

Main Ethnic Groups

The province of South Kivu is a very important ethno-cultural brewing on a wave of a strong tendency to the union but hampered by the crises that shook our province and the neighboring countries during these 10 years of wars. Among these ethnicities we can quote you:

The BASHI: in the territory of Walungu, Kabare, Kalehe, Mwenga
- BAREGA: Mwenga, Shabunda, Fizi
- The BAHAVU: Kalehe, Idjwi,
- The BAVIRA: Uvira,
- The BAFULERO: Uvira
- The BARUNDI: Uvira
- The BABEMBE: Fizi
- The BANYINDU: Walungu, Mwenga
- BATWA: Kalehe, Idjwi, Kabare

Ethnic Minorities

The term "ethnic minority" is often used in reference to the number of members of an ethnic or tribal community. We have already mentioned the main ethnic groups. Here we find some small groups that can occupy some villages but often they are attached to the majority ethnic group. Thus we have in the territory of Fizi Babuyu, Babwari, Bazobu in the territory of Uvira. There are also indigenous peoples living in the forest (Batwa or Pygmies). We meet them in Idjwi, Kabare, Kalehe, Mwenga. Finally there is the Banyamulenge a Tutsi people from Rwanda who ranks in this category. This name did not exist in Congolese literature before 1960.

In fact, in the uplands of Uvira and Fizi, lives a group of Tutsi pastors who came in small numbers between the 17th and the 18th century. With the massive arrival of their confreres from Rwanda in 1959 during the Hutu-Tutsi conflict, they came to swell the number and over time they bought land from local chiefs found on the spot until they formed a lobbying group. . Their exact number is not known because at the beginning of the war of the AFDL, Laurent D?sir? Kabila declared that he had 30.000 Banyamulenge. But recently one of the country's authorities said there were 45,000 Banyamulenge refugees in Burundi and 30,000 in Rwanda.

Where did the Banyamulenge appellation come from? Until the independence of our country the Banyamulenge ethnic group did not exist in Congo. In 1970, a Tutsi deputy named GISARO spoke for the first time of the Munyamulenge people, Mulenge being a Bafulero locality in the Uvira Territory. Little by little, this people was known by this name. The political recovery that would make him a minority people when there is none. In reality, it is the PYGMEES that we can consider as a minority group in South Kivu Province.

Land tenure among the Bashi

In Bushi, the land belongs in principle to the Mwami and his clan, they access the land by inheritance. The other people acquire the right of exploitation and enjoyment of the lands thanks to 3 main types of contracts: Bwasa, Kalinzi and Bugule. Bwasa is a short-term lease that is renewable each year for a payment not exceeding one goat. This type of contract does not favor agricultural development, because the tenant who knows he can lose his right of exploitation at any time does not care to do work that involves costly long-term profitable investments like the establishment of anti-erosive devices and soil amendments by fertilizers.

Kalinzi is a long-term lease negotiated on payment of one or more cows. However, kalinzi is not a purchase, because whoever gives the kalinzi enters into a relationship of subjection towards the recipient. In the social hierarchy, the one who gives the kalinzi cow becomes the subject of the person who receives it. He owes him recognition, submission and minimum contributions in the event of marriage, bereavement, construction and any other event occurring in his family. If the beneficiary of a kalinzi contract is ungrateful and unsympathetic to his boss, the latter can take his field. But these are cases that rarely happen. Usually, kalinzi is hereditary with all its implications.

Food crops



This crop, which is better suited to high altitude environments, is expected to replace manioc grown erroneously in the mountains, but unfortunately it does not enter the diet of the mountainous South Kivu population. On the economic level too, it would bring more income to the population because it has a shorter vegetative cycle than cassava and can be grown twice per season, whereas cassava harvesting occurs only after 12 months. 18 months in altitude. Overall, the average yield per hectare during the three seasons has more or less stabilized.


Sweet potato is also grown throughout the province. It is generally considered as a welding culture. The sweet potato is mainly consumed with beans mainly in the territories of Kabare and Walungu. As with all other food crops, the scarcity of arable land is a major handicap for its extension. The fall in production for the 2002 crop year is due to the reduction in the number of farm households and the area sown.


Banana is grown throughout South Kivu but is attacked by cosmopolitan sordidus. The most cultivated variety is the beer banana which is the raw material for the preparation of the local drink 60 consumed mainly at Bushi-Buhavu. It can cover 70% of the cultivable area. In the territories of Mwenga and Shabunda it is the plantain and table banana that dominate. Bushi-Buhavu must make a lot of effort to get the peasant to clear the banana plantation in favor of other intercrops such as beans, sorghum, etc. but this is not listened to because the farmer gives too much importance to the local drink Kasikisi which is appreciated as a food. During the famine period, beer banana is used to make the dough mixed with cassava flour.


This crop is practiced mainly in the Walungu, Uvira and Kalehe territories. It plays the same role as the sweet potato at high altitude. Production is generally used for self-consumption. Production statistics for two 1001 and 2002 crop years are almost balanced.


Yam is mainly cultivated in the Kalehe and Kalonge territories, as well as in Kabare, Walungu and Idjwi in small quantities. The statistics in our possession show that the 2002 crop year was very favorable, given the increase in the area planted.


It is cultivated in all the territories of the Province of South Kivu. In practice it is often found associated with maize and cassava. The sale of peanuts is not a problem because it is very popular in the diet. There is a lack of reliable statistics on production for the last few years.


After cassava, beans and the most widely grown food crop in the province and enters the diet of the entire population indistinctly. Its leaves are also eaten as very tender stage vegetables. With the gradual scarcity of arable land in mountainous areas, voluble varieties are better indicated.


The pea is cultivated in small quantities in the high altitude territories and slightly less in the city of Bukavu. Its extension requires strong propaganda but the seed problem arises because the pea is mostly harvested green and very rarely reaches full maturity. The fall in production for the 2002 crop year is due to the sharp decline in the number of farm households.


Increasingly, the population of the territories where the consequences of malnutrition (Bwaki) are reported has understood the important role of soy in the fight against kwashiorkor by incorporating it into the diet as a valuable substitute for the original proteins. animal. Since the farmer does not constitute the stock, the problem of lack of seed arises at the beginning of the season.


Maize farming is practiced everywhere in South Kivu Province because ecological conditions are everywhere favorable and the population is beginning to understand the nutritional value of the maize meal dough. Production remains low because of the degenerate seeds used by the majority of the population. The 2002 crop year was unfavorable for this crop as the number of farm households and the area planted decreased. It should also be noted that maize is the staple product for making beverages called Musululu and Kanyanga, sources of income for many poor families.


Paddy cultivation is a special feature of the Shabunda Territory which produces more than half of the province's production. Another part of the production comes from the territories of Mwenga, Fizi, Kalehe, Walungu and Uvira in the plain of Ruzizi where irrigated rice cultivation is practiced. It is deplorable that all the paddy processing plants that existed in the interior of the province have been closed or destroyed. It should also be noted that poor road conditions make it difficult to market production. The absence of the Shabunda Territory in the paddy sector for the 2002 season justifies the alarming decrease of all the parameters, ie, MA, HAS, PT, in the table of agricultural characteristics annexed to this Monograph.


Sorghum is grown primarily for the fermentation of the local Kasiksi drink, which is very popular with Bashi-Bahavu and Bafulero. In addition its flour gives a paste very appreciated by these same tribes as well as the porridge for the infants. Yields per ha have remained almost the same for the last three seasons.


2 types: Arabica coffee and Robusta coffee.
In traditional sector, the average area per farmer is 60 ares while in the modern sector, the average area is 50 ha. The marketing of coffee for export is supervised by the National Office of Coffee (ONC) sectors of Beni and Goma whose infrastructure was calcined and destroyed by the volcanic eruption of January 17, 2002.

Vegetable crops

Tea factories no longer operate throughout the province. The modern and traditional sector are paralyzed. The plantations have become pastures, reserves for firewood and shelters for the different armed groups.


Although tobacco is a cash crop, it is not practiced in a modern sector. All production is smuggled to Rwanda. The decrease in production is the basis of the producer price increase.

Oil palm tree

In the traditional sector, this crop is widespread mainly in the territory of Shabunda and partly in the territories of Fizi, Mwenga and Kalehe (Bunyakiri). The factories that favor fruit processing no longer exist. Farmers use manual prennials for oil extraction. Given the economic importance of this product, farmers still need to rejuvenate their old fields, but they lack early and more productive varieties.

Sugar cane

In the traditional sector, sugar cane allows the farmer to meet his basic needs. The Kiliba factory is no longer in operation, its fields are transformed into food crops by the population. Only in the territory of Uvira where sugar cane was grown on a large scale by the peasant because Kiliba Sugar Mill is on site to absorb production.

Quinquina Traditional sector

This cultivation was practiced in South Kivu province at high altitude where it had gained ground for a number of years when its bark was highly sought after on the world market. Currently, due to the slump in this product and the appearance of phytophtora disease, which has decimated many fields and plantations, this crop has lost ground for food crops.

Modern sector

The PHARMAKINA Company remains the only agro-industrial company that exploits and transforms itself this speculation. This company has also abandoned many of its fields where phytophtora has appeared. PHARMAKINA is conducting research to find plant material resistant to this disease.


Extensive individual breeding: the farmer has one, two or three cattle that he feeds around his home, sometimes the beast lives in the same house as the breeder. Extensive collective breeding: the breeder has a herd often composed of more than eight heads. The breeders organize themselves to put together their animals and entrust them to a drover. Semi-intensive farming: it is often observed in the territory of Kalehe, Kabare and Walungu where the herders have certain infrastructures. The cattle thefts, noticed since 1995, reached the paroxysm between the years 2000 and 2002. The victims were the breeders of the territories of Kalehe, Kabare, Walungu, Mwenga (Luhwindja). This phenomenon led to total discouragement and the abandonment of this activity by the peasants. On the other hand, in the highlands of the Territory of Fizi, there is a very encouraging evolution of the cattle herd. This increase is mainly due to the difficulties of commercialization during the armed conflicts towards the urban centers for more than five years

The Peach

Fishing on Lake Kivu

Two types of fishing are practiced in Lake Kivu: traditional fishing by very basic equipment (canoe cut into a tree trunk, nets of reduced size, lines) and a very low yield. Artisanal fishing resulting from the improvement of gear used in traditional fishing. The equipment usually consists of 3 canoes attached by long poles, nets and a lighting system consisting of lamps.

Fishing on Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika is the natural border between the DRC and Burundi. The main fish species are ndakala and lumbu. The fishery on Lake Tanganyika is characterized as on Lake Kivu by traditional fishing and artisanal fishing.


The presence of Rwandan and Burundian refugees since 1994 in the Province of South Kivu has contributed to the destruction of the environment. The result is the disordered cutting of trees, the uncontrolled occupation of pastures and fields, certainly reducing the living space reserved for local populations in an environment already victim of overpopulation.

Logging in the Province is almost exclusively done by long sawing, which is done manually by a small team of 5 to 6 people. Industrial logging in the strict sense is non-existent. The species exploited are: entandrophagma, piptademia, lebrunia 5, lebrunia bushaie, mitragyne, macrolobium, fagara, ekeberghine. And this forest is in the territories of Mwenga, Shabunda, Kalehe and Fizi.

The Province of South Kivu is essentially mountainous. The threats of erosions are numerous. In the field of erosion control, Project Kabare is involved in the establishment of progressive terraces and reforestation in certain problem sites. 500,000 trees were planted by this NGO between 1995 and 2000. Also in the context of the protection of natural resources, the URBAN FORESTRY Project of the Ministry of the Environment City of Bukavu, produces about 80,000 seedlings a year and proceeds with the planting of these 76 last through the City of Bukavu in sites threatened by erosions or landslides.

This biological diversity is threatened by various anthropogenic actions: agriculture, breeding, poaching, uncontrolled bush fires, logging for energy-wood, etc. The massive influx of Rwandan refugees has had a multiplier effect on the aforementioned threats.

The Province of South Kivu is essentially mountainous. The threats of erosions are numerous. In the field of erosion control, Project Kabare is involved in the establishment of progressive terraces and reforestation in certain problem sites. 500,000 trees were planted by this NGO between 1995 and 2000. Also in the context of the protection of natural resources, the URBAN FORESTRY Project of the Ministry of the Environment City of Bukavu, produces about 80,000 seedlings a year and proceeds with the planting of these 76 last through the City of Bukavu in sites threatened by erosions or landslides.


Lake Kivu connects Bukavu to Goma and Lake Tanganyika connects Uvira - Kalemie - Bujumbura - Kigoma (Tanzania) and Mpulungu (Zambia). These lanes facilitate the intense import of goods by large vessels ranging from 50 to 600 tons. Lake Kivu facilitates traffic to Rwanda by motorized boot (for foodstuffs) and to Kalehe and Birava. There are several boats that provide daily connections between Bukavu and Goma. There are 2 of the SNCC, 1 Bureau des Routes and several private boats.

Air Transport

The Province of South Kivu has only one national airport of KAVUMU 34 km from the City of Bukavu and whose size does not allow international navigation. The airport has no airport, facilities, or appropriate navigation control equipment. The Shabunda Aerodrome is run by the RVA and is in good working condition.

The Kalehe runway serving as a clearing of Kavumu Airport in bad weather has been closed since 1967 and the concession is occupied by the peasants for their fields. Private tracks are dirt and poorly maintained for the most part, they require reloading and reprofiling.


The Province of South Kivu is quite poor in underground resources. The best-known ores are gold, cassiterites, coltan and wolframites, and the production levels are shown in the table below.

The Province of South Kivu does not have large industrial units other than BRALIMA, PHARMAKINA and KILIBA Sugar Factory. Armed conflicts that have taken up residence on the territory since 1996 have led to the looting, destruction and closure of several industrial production units.

Bukavu, the capital of South Kivu Province, is the only city in the Province. It owes its fame to its status of capital of the former Province of Kivu from which come the current Provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The first European occupation dates from 1900, when the Belgians sought to contain the German colonization of Rwanda. The urban boom dates back to the early 1940s. Its tourist attraction, once exploited, is now diverted to Goma, closer to the Virunga Park and better served by the airways. As an administrative capital, the city today has only a limited economic function.

The city of Bukavu is connected to the main urban centers of North, South Kivu and Maniema. The connection with Goma is by road (207 km) and by lake. The liaison with Kindu in Maniema is done mainly by air, the road became impassable. It is connected to the Katanga Province from Kalundu Port on Lake Tanganyika. The city is also open on Rwanda by Cyangungu and on Burundi by Kamvivira.

The Province of South Kivu was created in 1988 by the division into three Provinces of ancient Kivu. This entity is largely mountainous except for the Mwenga and Shabunda Forest Territories. South Kivu served as a gateway for the various wars of aggression, the consequences of which are still important for the socio-economic life of the population. Once very prosperous today, South Kivu is one of the three most affected provinces in the country. Insecurity reigns everywhere and especially in the rural world. Economic and agricultural activities are at a discount. Accessibility to basic services including primary health care, schooling for children, transportation, etc. have become very difficult. The food deficit is huge and the province must depend on other provinces and neighboring countries to ensure the food security of its population. The tourism industry is down because of the destruction of the environment and insecurity. Most processing industries have been looted, destroyed and closed.


1. National Energy Commission, South Kivu Energy Panorama, vol.2: Energy Diagnosis in the City of Bukavu, Bukavu, October 2003.
2. Provincial Division of the EPSP, Annual Report 2002/2003, Bukavu January 2004.
3. Provincial Division of the EPSP, Annual Report 2003/2004, Bukavu January 2005.
4. Tourism Division, State of Play of the Provincial Division of Tourism of South Kivu, 2003.
5. Provincial Plan Division, Technical Brief of South Kivu Province, Bukavu, August 2003.
6. Provincial Health Inspection, Annual Report 2004, Bukavu January 2005.
7. UNDP / UNOPS, South Kivu Province Monograph, PNSAR, Kinshasa 1998.
8. UNICEF, National Survey on the Status of Children and Women, MICS2, Analysis Report, Kinshasa, July 2002.