Located almost in the center of the DRC, the province of Maniema covers an area of 132,250 square kilometers or 5.6% of the total area of the country. It lies between 0 'and 5' of South latitude and between 24 ? 55 'and 28 ? 8' of East longitude. The Province of Maniema is limited to the North by Province Orientale, to the South by Katanga, to East by South Kivu and North Kivu and to the West by Kasa? Oriental.
The province of Maniema is generally located in the so-called low altitude zone. Its northwestern part including the territories of Lubutu and Punia is entirely in the Central Cuvette whose average altitude is 500 m. Further south in the territory of Kabambare the altitude rises gradually until reaching 800 m.
The Maniema is characterized by a hot and humid climate. It evolves from the equatorial type in the North to the Sudanese type in the South, passing through a transition zone in the Center. Southern Territories including Kasongo, Kibombo and Kabambare undergo a dry season of 3 to 4 months, from May 15 to September 15. The Pangi and Kailo (Kindu) Territories at the Center have only two to three months of dry season per year. The territories of Lubutu and Punia located near the equator and therefore in the North of the Province do not experience a very dry season. The annual rainfall varies from 1,300 mm in the South to 2,300 mm in the North.
Pedogenesis has generated climatic soils of three types in Maniema, namely: o Arenoferralsol: This group of kaolisaol extends from north to south along the Congo River. It occupies the east of Lubutu, the Center of Ka?lo including KINDU, almost all of Kibombo and South of Kasongo. o Ferrisol: it covers part of Maniema, except South of Kibombo and Kasongo, and North of Lubutu. o Ferralsol: a group that becomes individualized south of Kabambare. Ferralsol of the Yangambi type identifies with the north of Lubutu.
The province of Bas-Congo is characterized by a tropical climate of Sudanese type whose dry season well marked extends a little more than 4 months (from May 15 to September 25). In addition, the long rainy season is often interrupted by a short dry season in February. According to the climate classification system of Koppen, the climate of Bas-Congo can be subdivided into two types, namely:
The range of different soil types found in Maniema comes from the variety of bedrock, climate, elevations and terrain. The soil being an extremely complex building, it sometimes varies considerably in the same ecological zone from the sandy Kibombo territory to the compact clay of large forest areas (Pangi, Kasongo). These clay soils are of excellent agronomic quality and characterized by a more luxuriant spontaneous vegetation, an easier generation, a reserve of mineral compounds including lime. These soils are partly present in Kasongo, Kailo, Pangi and Kibombo.
Two large vegetal formations cover the Maniema: the humid dense forest and the savannah. The dense area covers the territories of Lubutu, Punia and Pangi and part of Ka?lo and Kibombo. This forest is rich in valuable forest species. These forest galleries cover the territories of Kasongo and Kibombo and part of the territory of Kabambare where the forest gallery is called "Nyema", hence the origin of the name MANIEMA. The grassy, shrubby and woody savannahs are found from the South to the Maniema Center respectively in the Kibombo, Kasongo and Ka?lo Territories.
The province of Maniema is very rich in watercourse. It is crossed from south to north by the Congo River which drains the waters of several tributaries of which the most important are: Lulindi, Musukuyi, Mulongoy, Kunda, Lufubu, Lowe, Lweki, Elila, Kasuku, Ulindi and Lowa.
ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL SITUATION
Administratively, the Province of Maniema was established by Ordinance No. 88-031 of July 20, 1988. It is covered by the Provincial Statute after the break-up of the former Province of Kivu and is composed of: • 7 Territories and 3 Communes, • 34 Sectors or Communities • 6 Quarters and 317 Groupings, • 2,880 Villages. Territories and communes Kabambare Kailo KASONGO Kibombo Lubutu Pangi Punia Alunguli KASUKU Mikelenge
The Province is managed by a Governor and two Vice-Governors, responsible respectively for Administration and Politics, then for Economy, Finance and Development. The Mayor of Kindu is headed by a Mayor and two Vice-Mayors. The three communes are headed by bourgmestres assisted by the bourgmestres. The Administrators of the territories are assisted by two Deputies.
The Province of Maniema is populated only by Bantu composed of three ethnic groups according to anthropologists and historians (J. Abemba, 1995). The first group consists of a mosaic of lineages comprising Binja-Sud, Buyu, Songye, Hemba, Mikebwa and subgroups like Nonda, MambaKasenga and Kwange. These groups would be the migrated fractions of the large Luba complex because of their cultural affinities with the Luba of Katanga.
The second group belonging to the group Ana- Mongo includes Kusu, Ombo, Langa, Ngengele, Bindja- Kuna (Wazimba), Samba. The third group came from the former Kingdom of Bunyoro and includes the groups Kumu, Rega, Mituku, Lengola and Bindja- Nord.
TERRITORIES / TRIBAL / GROUPS
KABAMBARE: BABUYU, BANGUBANGU AND BOHOMBO KAILO: BASONGOLA, BANGENGELE, BALANGA, BAKUSU, BATETELA, MITUKU AND BAZIMBA. KASONGO: BAZIMBA, NONDA, KASENGA, BASKET, MAMBA, BAKWANGE, WAGENYA, WAZURA, BAKUSU AND LEGA. KIBOMBO: BAKUSU, BASKET, BATETELA, BAZIMBA, BAKWANGE AND WAGENYA. LUBUTU: BAKUMU AND BANYAMITUKU. PANGI: LEGA, BAZIMBA AND BASONGOLA. PUNIA: BAKUMU, BASONGOLA, BAKWAME, LEGA AND BANYAMITUKU.
Structure of the Company
The three cities of Ecuador are Mbandaka, Zongo and Gbadolite. 1) City of Mbandaka Capital of the Province., Mbandaka, called in the colonial era Coquilathville until 1966, extends over 460 square kilometers and includes 2 communes: Mbandaka and Wangata each having 10 districts. 2) City of Zongo
Established at the beginning of the Second Republic under the reign of Mobutu and located on the left bank of the Ubangi River, in the extreme north-west of the country in front of the Central African capital Bangui, the city of Zongo has an area of 1,045 square kilometers and is subdivided into two communes: Wango and Nzulu. 3) City of Gbadolite.
Created according to the Yamousoukro model of the Ivorian Houphou?t BOIGNY, this hamlet yesterday barely counting a few boxes in 1967, became, by the will of the President of the Republic, Joseph D?sir? Mobutu, a metropolis of 3 municipalities in North Ubangi : Nganza, Molegbe and Gbadolite. Gbado covers 11,2 Km2.
Land rights are obtained and exercised by groups in which individuals have rights and duties. The group divides the space and the households exploit it. The primacy of the land system over the Loi Bakajika leads to a very strong duality, where the density of the population is high and the good rare earths. If the unused land is numerous, the demands of the concessions are welcomed with sympathy. However, land conflicts are possible between the farmers (foreign to the land-owning clan) and the villagers, where the concessions are numerous and the good rare earths. This is the case of the Ka?lo and Kibombo territories where large concessions have been granted but whose development has not followed. They are thus immobilized for nothing and farmers often go for their fields without the prior consent of the holder: sources of conflict.
Generally, cassava is consumed everywhere in more or less quantity as well as banana and rice. Vegetables are mainly cassava leaves. Palm oil is used everywhere for food preparation, not to mention peanut oil to a lesser extent. Specifically, the staple foods of the Warega and Bakusu are plantain, Wazimba and Balubalized cassava, rice for the Arabized, rice and maize for the Wazula, rice and millet for the farmers. Bakusu.
Proteins of animal origin come mainly from hunting, fishing and gathering (caterpillars), occasionally from small livestock (goats, sheep, swine or poultry) and sporadically from cattle.
Livestock farming in Maniema is traditional in nature and focuses mainly on small livestock and poultry. There is no other organized farm unit in this province outside the KATAKO small farm in Kailo Territory, 7 km from Kindu to Kibombo. Breeding of cattle still in the introductory stage has also suffered the disruption of the war.
The Maniema herd is mainly composed of local breeds of goats, sheep, pigs, birds and barnyard animals (chickens, ducks, rabbits, guinea fowl, ...). The community has experienced the introduction of a few breeders, including "Large-White" for pork, "Golden Leghorn" and "Rhodes Island Red" for chickens; these breed breeders are currently brewed in local strains and completely degenerate. Hence, we need the introduction of new breeds for carcass improvement and prolificity.
Maniema fishing is also of the artisanal type, it is carried out on the Congo River, its tributaries and on Lake Njdale located in the Chiefdom of MATAPA in Territory of Kibombo.
Equipment and materials used by fishermen include canoes, nets, hooks, floats (usually cork) and earthworms used as bait for fishing. Fishing production is very low in the province and its statistics difficult to control. In the case of fish farming, it is practiced at the family level, at a very rudimentary stage by the construction of dam ponds, which are less laborious but have the facility of breaking dikes in rainy weather. However, family fish farming is a significant source of animal protein and generates a certain income for many households in peri-urban areas of Kindu, particularly in the Pangi, Kailo and Kasongo Territories.
The tourist potentialities of MANIEMA are constituted by the MAIKO National Park, the natural reserves, the tourist sites such as the old slave market of NYANGWE, the caravan route and the caves of MWANAKUSU in the Territory of KASONGO. With regard to the MAIKO National Park, it should be noted that it is largely found in the Province Orientale, the part located in Maniema is small and without reception sites to receive tourists.
The natural reserves of MANIEMA are constituted by certain biological communities including primates, carnivores, ungulates and exotic birds. In general, the tourism industry is very little developed in the Province. Tourist sites lack appropriate infrastructure. Hotel infrastructures are also of low quality. This table shows the few reception houses in the Province.
Transport and Communications
The Province of Maniema has an important road network which counts more or less 8,300 Km including 5,300 km of road of agricultural service. It should be noted here that out of these ? 8,300 km in this network, only 177 km of roads are paved (paved), or 2% (Kindu - Kalima 67 Km, Lubutu - Oso 110 Km). The rest are dirt roads that have reached a very deplorable state of degradation that requires substantial resources and priority and urgent intervention; and moreover, less than 1,000 km only are now barely passable.
The Congo River crosses the Province from South to North and is navigable on the section of Kindu to Ubundu, that is to say 308 km; the Kindu - Kibombo - Kasongo section is not navigable. River transport was provided by the SNCC to connect Kisangani and Kinshasa. Since the armed conflicts in 1998, this river network was no longer exploited. The boats of the SNCC ask for a deep rehabilitation. Some rivers also offer opportunities for navigation. These are the rivers Elila, Ulindi, Mulongoyi, Lomami, whose collection of agricultural products is carried out by small embarkations or paddle canoes.
The railway connects Kindu, the chief town of the Province, to the Provinces of Katanga and Kasai Oriental. This railway has just been rehabilitated and put back into service at the beginning of this year2004, after several years of impassability. He is the lung of the economy of Maniema. In this post-conflict situation, it is the only way that actually gives life to Kindu and the Province. It is operated by the SNCC and is a marketing channel for both agricultural and manufactured products. For the moment, at least one train operates between Katanga and Maniema.
The Province of Maniema has a national airport in Kindu and three aerodromes managed by the RVA and the Ministry of Transport and Communication. These are the aerodromes of Kalima, Kasongo and Punia. Several private airstrips are scattered throughout the Province according to the distribution in the table below.
No television station is established in the Province, not even relays of the RTNC Kinshasa. The population of Maniema never follows the information supported by the images. Barely five radio stations are located in the province, some of which are relay stations. All these radios broadcast in FM and do not provide good coverage to the entire population. They are shown in the table below.
Mines and Industries
The province of Maniema has many important mineral potential that can rank it in 4th position after Katanga, Province Orientale and Kasai Oriental. The great underground resources identified are Gold, Diamond, Cassiterite, Coltan (Colombo Tatal), Malachite, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Platinum, Silver, etc.
The mineral wealth has been exploited industrially since the colonial era by the only SOMINKI Company in KALIMA in the PANGI Territory. Today, the health of this Society is mediocre and the artisanal exploitation takes over especially for the COLTAN and the Diamond.
Habitat, Water, Electricity
The housing situation in Maniema is very poor in both rural and urban areas. The living environment does not meet the minimum requirements. The houses built in rural and peri-urban areas are in traditional technology (straw, rammed earth, ...), fragile dwellings and very small dimensions presenting poor hygienic conditions.
From the sanitation point of view, we can remember the very limited number of latrines connected to public sewers, the lack of public latrines, the difficulties of evacuation of household waste. The results of the January 2004 MERLIN survey in the KINDU Health Zone account for 33% of houses built of straw, 56% of rammed earth and only 11% of durable materials. 91% of lighting in homes uses palm oil lanterns, 7.1% storm lamps and 0.8% electricity.
Both urban and rural households in Maniema face enormous difficulties in providing drinking water. The same survey indicates that in the health zone of KINDU, the provincial capital, 91% of water sources are not protected. The populations of this zone get their supply of well water at 36%, sources developed at 28%, suction pumps at 19%, rivers, rivers and ponds at 13%, and rainwater at 4%.
In relation to access to drinking water, the WHO standard is 20 liters / person / day. In Maniema the average amount of water used per person / day is 10 liters. A housewife takes an average of 23 minutes to reach the water source. The portion of households that live 5 minutes or more from the source is 88% and more than 30 minutes from the source is 20%. In many localities the population complains of consuming infected water, polluted by untouched rivers and rivers. The state of drinking water sources was degraded during the war years.
It should be noted that MANIEMA has some hydroelectric plants, including RUTCHURUKURU which supplies the city of KALIMA, that of AMBWE for the city of KAILO and that of BELYA for the city of PUNIA. All of these plants are owned by the KIVU Mining Company (eg SOMINKI) and are in a state of continuous deterioration that may cause them to shut down completely.
It should be noted that not all of these plants have the capacity to serve the entire province. The city of KINDU, itself, is plunged into the dark except for the few generators of individuals, those of MONUC and some international NGOs that illuminate part of the city and the power station of SNEL / KINDU with a installed power of 900 KVA of which 750 KVA may be available when the company is supplied with gas oil.
URBAN POVERTY OF KINDU
KINDU, the capital of MANIEMA Province, is the only city in the province. It is located almost in the center of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is located totally by the territory of KAILO and located between the 2nd and 4th parallels (south latitude) below the Equator and at a longitude between the 2nd and 27th Meridian East. The Congo River majestically crosses the City and divides it into two parts called Right Bank and Left Bank. Inside the city, there is an abundance of streams.
Kindu is an almost enclave city. Its opening on the outside is ensured by the plane thanks to its national airport. The railway and the waterway ensure the link respectively with Katanga and Province Orientale. The only asphalt road that is in good condition is the one that connects it to the mining town of KALIMA. The road connection with Bukavu is non-existent. The roads for transport and communication with the territories of the Province are highly degraded and impassable. Land ownership is subject to a multitude of traditional tenure regimes that continue to take precedence over formal regulation. The management of space, which in principle is the responsibility of the government, is superimposed on the management by the customary chiefs who have, curiously, retained precedence over the power of the state. They remain the owners of the land and dictate to their communities the rules and fees to be respected. 84.9% of households are homeowners and 2.6% are renters (MICS2 provincial averages.).
MANIEMA and KASAI ORIENTAL are the two provinces with no direct opening to neighboring countries. The isolation of Maniema plays an important role in its socio-economic development, especially since transport and communication infrastructures are severely degraded during the five years of armed conflict. The agricultural and forestry potential of Maniema is enormous but under exploited. Yesterday, the Province of Maniema was an agricultural breadbasket and supplied the neighboring Provinces of Katanga, Orientale and Kasa? Oriental with rice, cassava, bananas and other agricultural commodities. Today, it is forced to depend partially on others and lack of evacuation routes, production has declined sharply.
Human development indicators are all below the country average and the poverty line. The net enrollment rate is very low. Children are admitted late to primary school and the attrition rate is high enough. The prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS appears to be among the highest in the country at 6.4%. For a population estimated at 1.808.000 inhabitants, the Province counts only 23 Doctors, that is about a doctor for 78.000 inhabitants.
1. UNDP / UNOPS, Monograph of the Province of Maniema, PNSAR, Kinshasa 1998. 2. UNICEF, National Survey on the situation of children and women MICS2 / 2001, Analysis Report, Kinshasa 2001. 3. MIPRO, MANIEMA Framework Program with projection for the year 2001, Kinshasa 1996. 4. CTB / AICB, Local Development Plan for Areas of Intervention, Kindu 2004. 5. MERLIN, Socioeconomic and Access to Household Care Survey in Kindu Maniema Health Zones, January 2004. 6. Plan Division, Maniema Province Technical Data Sheet, Kindu 2004. 7. Provincial Governorate, Annual Report of the Maniema Territories, Kindu 2004. 8. CRONGD, CRONGD Maniema Strategic Plan 2002 - 20077, Kindu 2002. 9. Health Inspection, 2004-2006 Triennial Action Plan of the Provincial Inspectorate of Health, Kindu 2004. 10. Planning Division, Diagnosis of the Province of Maniema, Kindu 1990. 11. UNDP, Community Reconstruction, Reintegration of ex-combatants and reduction of small arms in the DRC, Kindu 2004. 12. Ministry of Planning, Minimum Partnership Program for Transition and Recovery in the DRC, Kinshasa, May 2004.