The province of North Kivu is located astride Ecuador. It is between latitude 0 ? 58 'North and latitude 02 ? 03' South and between longitude 27 ? 14 'West and 29 ? 58' East longitude. It is limited to the East by the Republics of Uganda and Rwanda (South-East), to the North and West by Province Orientale, to the South-West by the Province of Maniema and to the South by the Province South Kivu. Its surface area is 59,631 km2, which is about 2.5% of the national territory.

Relief

The terrain of North Kivu is very rugged. The altitude varies from less than 800 m to more than 2,500 m. some peaks reach more than 5,000 m. This relief consists of plains, plateaus and mountain ranges. Alluvial wool extends from north to south of Lake Edward. These are, respectively, the alluvial plains of Semliki and Rwindi- Rutshuru. The western shores of Lake Edward face a steep escarpment, whose extension to the south, on the edge of the Rwindi-Rutshuru plain is known as the Kabasha escarpment.

Climate

The heterogeneity of the relief brings a great variety of climates. In general, there is a close correlation between altitude and mean temperature. Below 1,000 m, this temperature is close to 23 ? C. At 1,500 m, we record some 19 ? C and at 2,000 m, about 15 ? C. The average rainfall varies between 1,000 mm and 2,000 mm. The lowest monthly precipitation is recorded between January and February and between July and August. Four seasons characterize the climate of North Kivu: two wet seasons and two dry seasons. The first wet season is between mid-August and mid-January and the second is practically from mid-February to mid-July. As for the two dry seasons, they are very short. The first is observed between mid-January and mid-February and the second between mid-July and mid-August.

Soils

The altitude climate and terrain give the soils of North Kivu a certain complexity. Nevertheless, the soils of North Kivu could be divided into three great classes: Recent volcanic soils: from lava flows from volcanoes. The recent flows do not yet allow agriculture to settle there, while in the older flows, the lava is particularly decomposed and forms a soil sometimes still superficial but very fertile. These soils are found between Goma and Rutshuru. Soils of alluvial plains: these soils are found in the plains of Semliki and come from lacustrine deposits, the Semliki River and its tributaries. Soils of ancient rocks: these soils are very deep and rich in humus. They are rather clayey and not very compact and have, on the surface, a large reserve of organic matter.

Vegetation

The main vegetation types of North Kivu Province are:
o The dominant savannahs in the alluvial plains of Semliki and Rutshuru.
o Shrub and sclerophile climatic formations in the lava plain north of Lake Kivu.
o Mountain rainforests are mainly found in the Ruwenzori and Virunga ranges. These forests are heterogeneous.
o Equatorial forest in the territories of Lubero, Masisi, Walikale and Beni.

Hydrography

Two large vegetal formations cover the Maniema: the humid dense forest and the savannah. The dense area covers the territories of Lubutu, Punia and Pangi and part of Ka?lo and Kibombo. This forest is rich in valuable forest species. These forest galleries cover the territories of Kasongo and Kibombo and part of the territory of Kabambare where the forest gallery is called "Nyema", hence the origin of the name MANIEMA. The grassy, shrubby and woody savannahs are found from the South to the Maniema Center respectively in the Kibombo, Kasongo and Ka?lo Territories.

Hydrography

The hydrography of North Kivu is dominated by the existence of two large lakes, namely Lake Edward and Lake Kivu. Lake Edouard: It has an area of 2,150 square kilometers including 1,630 square kilometers for the Congolese part, with an average depth of 30 meters. this lake is full of fish and is an important source of income for families living nearby. Lake Kivu: it is the highest in Central Africa because it is located at an altitude of 1,460 m in the pit that is bounded by the high Virunga volcanoes. Its area is 2,700 km2 for the Congolese part with an average depth of 285 m. Unlike Lake Edward, Lake Kivu has few fish.

Mokotos Lakes: These are four lakes named respectively Ndalaha, Lukulu, Mbalukia and Mbila. Together they cover an area of 86 km2 and are located next to the monastery of the same name, in chiefdom of Bashali, Territory of Masisi. The river system also includes the following rivers: Rutshuru, Rwindi, Semliki, Osso and Lowa.

Administrative organisation

It was by the decree of August 1, 1888, that the Congo Free State was subdivided into eleven districts. North Kivu belonged at that time to the district of Stanley Falls. In 1889, Stanley-falls becomes Province Orientale with Stanleyville as its County seat (Kisangani today).

The first territories were created between 1912 and 1914 and were named either by the name of the chief town, ethnicity, a watercourse, or a geographical feature of the landscape. In 1939, Kivu was given the status of district to become a province in 1951. Then North Kivu became district in 1956, it is divided into 6 territories namely Beni, Lubero, Rutshuru, Goma, Masisi and Walikale. The chief place was Goma.

By the law of August 14, 1962, all districts of the Republic of Congo are returned to Province including North Kivu until 1965. After the advent of Mobutu in power on 24/11/1965, the former districts resume their status and North Kivu remains attached as a district in Kivu.

At the end of the 4th Ordinary Congress of the MPR, Parti-Etat, and through Ordonnace-loi n ? 88/1976 of July 20, 1988, North Kivu again becomes a Province within its geographical limits of 1956 as recognized until today. 'hui.

Administratively, the Province of North Kivu is subdivided into 6 Territories, 3 Cities, 10 Communes, 17 Communities including 10 Chieftaincies and 7 Sectors), 97 Groupings, 5 Cities, 5,178 Villages. The following tables provide all possible details on these administrative subdivisions. The smallest territory is NYIRAGONGO with 163 Km? or 0.27% of the provincial area. The largest territory is WALIKALE with 23,475 Km? or 39.46% of the total area of the Province.

The lowest density in the Province is observed in the community of Bapere in Lubero Territory, followed by the Wanianga community in Walikale territory. The dimensions of the localities in Beni, Rutshuru, Masisi are almost the same, but with different densities in population. In Lubero, it's double the others, but half of WALIKALE. The smallest villages meet in NYIRAGONGO and the largest ones physically in WALIKALE.

Administrative organisation

The Province is managed by a Provincial Governor assisted by two Vice-Governors, one of whom is in charge of Administration and Politics and the other of Economics, Finance and Development. Town halls exist in the three cities of North Kivu, namely Goma, Beni and Butembo. The mayor is managed by a Mayor assisted by two vice-mayors, one of whom is in charge of the administration and the other of the economy and finance.

The six territories are headed by a Territory Administrator (TA) and a Principal Assistant Territory Administrator (ATAP).

Proteins of animal origin come mainly from hunting, fishing and gathering (caterpillars), occasionally from small livestock (goats, sheep, swine or poultry) and sporadically from cattle.

Political environment

Since 1990, North Kivu has felt the misdeeds of political instability resulting in poor governance, whose people have had to pay a heavy tribe. As we have lived in the last thirteen years between 1991 and 2003:
The looting of people's property.
• In 1993, interethnic conflicts in Masisi.
• In 1994, the massive influx of Rwandan refugees having spilled all genocide Rwandan Interahamwe.
• Between 1995-1996, the various raids of Mobutu's soldiers through Mbata and Kimya operations.
• November 1996, the first liberation war by the AFDL resulted in deaths and scattered the Interahamwe in the Province and the country.
• August 1998, the second liberation war by RCD.
• In 2000, the balkanization of the Province with the original RCD and the RCD-KML until July 2003 when the reunification of the country was achieved.

All these sad events have unfortunately benefited from the complicity of neighboring countries such as Rwanda and Uganda who have managed to exploit Congolese politicians to oppose them as they take advantage of the opportunity to exploit and enjoy the resources. of the country, of the Province such as minerals, wood, ... Militias have been created whose confrontation between them have only been desolation by killing, flying and raping.

Armed groups such as the May - May, the Interahamwe, the ex - FAR attack the city of Goma unsuccessfully on 14 September 1998. Other isolated attacks are perpetrated by armed groups here and there in the villages, the park National Virunga, along the roads, etc. As a result of the deterioration of the relations between the ethnic groups, the Provincial Commission for Pacification and Concordance (C.P.C), reinforced by the services of the churches and local NGOs, is working to ease the situation. Several consultation meetings between the ethnic communities of North Kivu lead to a request for mutual forgiveness and set up a structure called Barza intercommunautaire whose mission is the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts between different ethnic communities.

SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

The dispersion of the uncontrolled Armed Stripes throughout the Province has caused a great movement of the population from the interior to the big centers. The territories of RUTSHURU, MASISI and WALIKALE are the most affected in the province of North Kivu.

The population in charge (inactive) between 0 and 18 years old and that aged over 55 years, this represents 62.9% of the total workforce. Thus, there are 37.1% of people in charge of everyone in meeting the vital and socio-economic needs of the community. It should also be noted the population at preschool age: 20.52%.

Most immigrants to North Kivu come from East Africa, particularly from Rwanda and Burundi since 1927. Due to land difficulties in these countries, these immigrants are moving into areas where they are located. implanted their congeners, in particular RUTSHURU, MASISI, WALIKALE and GOMA. Until 1955, when immigration from Rwanda was halted, at least 170,000 people were already settled, instead of 60,000 originally planned by the colonizer. This movement continues and in 1989 the result of the administrative census showed a population of 448,391 immigrants against 2,135,434 indigenous or 17%. In 1994, the number was increased to 548,342 against 2,627,437 nationals, or 17.26% of the total population.

The influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994 would have quadrupled these numbers, as refugee estimates at that time were over one million refugees. At the level of inter-regional migratory exchanges, the results of the 1984 scientific census showed that it was mainly the Kasai Oriental population that was breaking in ancient Kivu. And today for North Kivu, it is always the same Kasaians with the Bashi of South Kivu, the Banyarwanda of Rwanda and the people of Maniema.

Company structure

The Province of Maniema has a national airport in Kindu and three aerodromes managed by the RVA and the Ministry of Transport and Communication. These are the aerodromes of Kalima, Kasongo and Punia. Several private airstrips are scattered throughout the Province according to the distribution in the table below.

The society is structured in a traditional way with the customary power that is organized at the level of the Chefferie Collective as well as in a modern way with the politico-administrative structures. The Chiefdom is headed by the MWAMI (who is often the chief of the tribe), whose power is transmitted by direct or Chinese descent according to the traditions established by custom. This is the case of the Collector-Chiefdoms of BAKUMU in the Territory of Nyiragongo, Chiefdom of TALINGA, PIRI in the Territory of Beni, SWAGHA, TANGI in the Territory of Lubero, BAHUNDE in the Territory of Masisi.

The Mwami is seconded, surrounded and advised by the notables who constitute a court of the Sages. He is the guardian and custodian of the traditions of the Community.

In a modern way, society also has politico-administrative structures. These structures are found in urban agglomerations such as the City of Goma, the major centers and the Sector Communities of the Province of North Kivu.

There are Pypmoid, Bantu and Nilotic indigenous peoples in the North Kivu Province. The pygmoid breed includes the MBUTEs who occupy the forest part of North Kivu where they practice hunting and gathering as part of a nomadic life. They are found in the territories of Masisi, Beni, Rutshuru and Lubero. Their way of life is in decline because of the destruction of the natural habitat (forest) and also the influence of the neighboring Bantu tribes. The PIRI (Beni Territory) are more receptive to this evolution because we meet more and more farmers among them.

The Bantu constitute the majority of the indigenous population of North Kivu. They are essentially farmers, breeders, fishermen and craftsmen. They are present in all the Territories and Communes of the Province. The Nilotics, mainly Tutsi, are herders and artisans whose area of occupation extends into the City of Goma, the Territories of Rutshuru and Masisi.

Ethnic minorities

In relation to access to drinking water, the WHO standard is 20 liters / person / day. In Maniema the average amount of water used per person / day is 10 liters. A housewife takes an average of 23 minutes to reach the water source. The portion of households that live 5 minutes or more from the source is 88% and more than 30 minutes from the source is 20%. In many localities the population complains of consuming infected water, polluted by untouched rivers and rivers. The state of drinking water sources was degraded during the war years.

Land tenure

Land tenure in North Kivu still remains feudal. Land management, for better agricultural and animal productivity, and the determination of forest reserves require agrarian reform that would define the limits of power of customary chiefs and notables on non-state land, so to speak the land law. As it is a cultural problem, it is necessary to study thoroughly in order to consider the best strategies to popularize the land law with the Notables in favor of the populations and the expansion of the agriculture, of the breeding and the conservation of the forest.

The impact of the studies is very certain for the modernization of agriculture, livestock breeding and for the promotion of tourism for certain sites and the development of new settlement areas.

Before colonization

The land was a collective property. There were no men and women without land, no landed property, the land belonged to all. Subsequently with population growth, farmers migrated to the still free lands on which the first-comers automatically became owners.

After independence

Six years after independence, on June 7, 1966, BAKAJIKA introduced a law bearing its name "BAKAJIKA Law" to try to reduce the regime of the lands of the Republic to the agrarian system which made lands a collective property of which the manager is the State. Today, we are seeing a situation in reverse, anarchic return to custom. This has resulted in the nasty destruction of old forest reserves, natural forests and parks. The rural exodus gives rise to promiscuity in our Cities and Towns: beni, Lubero, Kayna, Kirumba and Kanyabayonga.

In view of the foregoing, if a judicial and energetic agrarian reform is not undertaken as soon as possible, the risk of a movement like the one underway in Zimbabwe is very great in the very near future. Customary power remains in question. Indeed, there is no customary chief without land and without men.

Diet

The eating habits are almost the same for all inhabitants of North Kivu in that they consume the same foods but in different proportions depending on the social categories. The staple foods consist of cassava flour, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, rice. These foods are accompanied by beans, vegetables, fish, meat.

A food ration is a dynamic parameter in space and time. It is a function of eating habits that vary according to the ethnic groups and the social strata of the population. They are influenced by personal income, market components, and therefore prices depending on the level of supply and demand.

Agriculture

The traditional sector is characterized by insufficient areas, agricultural inputs, peasants, labor. It constitutes the totality of agriculture.

CASSAVA

Is one of the staple foods of the population of North Kivu. Cassava cultivation is highly preferred by farmers and is not very demanding and is a staple food. The cassava paste or Ugali as well as its leaves constitute "Sombe" vegetables are regular at each meal of many households in North Kivu. The cassava crop is attacked by mosaic and is cultivated throughout the Province. It will require a program to propagate and disseminate healthy cassava cuttings resistant to mosaic.

BUT

The cultivation, often in association with cassava, groundnuts and beans, is cultivated throughout the Province. Corn is a staple and consumed in the form of dough, ears or boiled. It is used as a raw material in the preparation of the traditional alcohol "LOTOKO" and the beer "MANDRAKWA".

BEAN

Is the leguminous grown throughout the province of North Kivu. The degeneration of some varieties is a major constraint.

RICE PADDY

It is mainly cultivated to make available early varieties and to popularize them in production environments in Walikale - Rutshuru and Beni and is not a staple food.

PEANUT

It is practiced in peasant environment in association with maize, it is cultivated on the whole extent of the Province. It is eaten fresh, boiled or grilled. The productive territories of groundnut are Beni - Rutshuru. Groundnuts are marketed in shell in large urban centers.

BANANA

Is the staple food of all tribes and is grown throughout the province with several varieties: plantain banana, sweet banana or "Bisamunyu", banana fruit all for food marketing. The bitter variety is intended for the production of banana beer "KASIKISI". The surplus of the production is marketed in the urban centers and the bordering countries Uganda and Rwanda.

YAM

Is among the staple foods grown throughout the Province. It is a culture of substitution to that of cassava attacked by mosaic.

POTATO

Is the culture of temperate climate of high altitude. The territory of Lubero is the largest producer followed by the territory of Nyiragongo. The largest quantity marketed is transported to major consumption centers: Kinshasa - Kisangani - Mbuji-Mayio, etc. The most cultivated varieties are Mabouro and Gahinga from Rwanda.

THE VEGETABLES

The main vegetables are: Chinese cabbages, red cabbage, leeks, onions, eggplant, cucumbers, carrots, tomatoes, salads, etc. The most market gardening territories are: Lubero and Nyiragongo, soils, climate and relief are favorable.

Vegetable production is very growing and marketed in the major centers of the Province and the Country. Vegetables are perishable for lack of storage and packaging equipment. The increase in production requires good seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, conservation equipment and a good marketing circuit.

THE FRUITS

Are pineapples, avocados, mangoes, maracuja, papaya, strawberries, guavas, lemons, ... The production of fruits of the Province is poorly known because the areas planted are not determined.

Priority industrial crops

The soil, relief and climate of the Province are favorable to the development of industrial crops: Arabiaca coffee, Robista coffee, tea, papain, oil palm, cinchona, tobacco, sugar cane, etc. The Province of North Kivu holds the monopoly of tea production and was the third producer after Orientale Province and Ecuador.

COFFEE

2 types: Arabica coffee and Robusta coffee.
In traditional sector, the average area per farmer is 60 ares while in the modern sector, the average area is 50 ha. The marketing of coffee for export is supervised by the National Office of Coffee (ONC) sectors of Beni and Goma whose infrastructure was calcined and destroyed by the volcanic eruption of January 17, 2002.

TEA

It is cultivated and adapted in medium altitude with moderate climate. It is grown in traditional (peasant farming) and modern (private companies). The tea production areas are Mweso and Butuhe. Most of the production is exploited abroad. Currently, the Butuhe tea complex is closed due to insecurity.

OIL PALM TREE

The producing territories are Walikale - Beni - Rutshuru. The production of palm oil is consumed by the local population and another part is marketed by the big cottons of the country and bordering countries. Palm nuts are used for homemade soap making.

PAPAYA

Is cultivated in Beni territory for the production of papain exported abroad by the company ENRA Beni. The purchases of papain are irregular because the fall of the prices on the international market from where the fall of production.

Breeding

The Province of North Kivu is favorable to the breeding. There are two types of farming: Traditional breeding: is practiced by small breeders with a reduced number of cattle or nomadism with rustic and disease resistant Ankole breed. Modern breeding or organized breeding: is constituted by the farms of 200 heads of cattle practicing artificial insemination for the improvement of the cattle or crossing the local breeds Ankole with the exotic breeds.

The Peach

The Province of North Kivu includes lakes, rivers full of fish for the practice of fishing.
Lake Edouard is full of fish with an annual production estimated at 15,000 tons.
The main species of fish are: Tilapia: 60% of the fish resources.
Bagrus: 10% of the halieutic resources
Clarias: 10% of the halieutic resources
Other species: 20% of the fishery resources.
Lake Kivu is not rich in fish. The listed species are: Limnothrissa moidon or SAMBAZA: 90% Other species: 10%.
The MOKOTO lakes with 86 Km? are NDAHALA - LUKULU - MBALIKIRA - MBITA all located in Masisi territory. Provision of fish to local populations. No hydrobiological study

Rivers Contain fish but non-practicable navigation with unknown fishing resources. In the province of North Kivu, three types of fishing are practiced:
• Artisanal fishing.
• Semi-industrial fishing.
• Individual angling or harpooning at stocking.
1. Semi-industrial fishing: is practiced at the Vitshumbi and Nyakakoma fisheries for the Rutshuru and Kyavinyonge territories for the Beni territory. It uses the following methods: • Beach seine fishing
• Purse seine fishing
2. Artisanal fisheries: provides the main production of the fishing sector.
The methods of artisanal fishing are:
• Fishing net giving.
• Striking net fishing.
• Non-motorized boats that are canoes.
• Motorized boat which are canoes and outboard engines.

The main fishing centers of Lake Kivu are: KIROTSHE - BWEREMANA - NZULO - KITUKU with an estimated annual production of 4,500 tons of fish. Fishermen complain about the lack of supervision since the National Fisheries Development Service (SENADEP) is no longer operational on Lake Edward.

The Congolese Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICCN) lack of financial, material and human resources does not properly ensure the monitoring of Lake Edward to fight against illegal or prohibited fishing.

Forests in North Kivu

The Democratic Republic of Congo is full of a good part of the Congo Basin forests, the 2nd lung of the world. Also, it should be noted that the forests in DR Congo occupy nearly 52% of the national area and 46% of the forests of the Congo Basin.

In North Kivu, there are essentially two types of forest located on the western side of the Mitumba Mountains. First, mountain rain forest located between high atmospheric humidity, relatively low average temperature (15 - 18 ? C) and frequent fog. Then, equatorial rainforest or semi - deciduous forest at altitudes below 1,700 m, with a transition band between 1,700 and 1,200 m altitude towards the big forest of the central basin of Congo.

East of the North Kivu Province, on the eastern side of the Mitumba Mountains are two other types of forest: the sclerophyllous forest of the arid Graben and the sub-alpine formations of the high mountains (Rwenzori).

Virunga National Park

It was created by the Royal Decree of April 21, 1925 by King Albert I in order to protect the great biodiversity and the attractive flora found in this part of North Kivu, but also to put these natural resources in the service of science. It is the oldest natural park in Africa.

The Virunga National Park has the status of an integral nature reserve and is managed under Ordinance-Law No. 69-041 of 22 August 1969 on the conservation of nature. It is recognized by UNESCO as heritage of humanity.

Stretched over 300 km in length, with strangulations that sometimes reduce the width to less than 3 km in some places, the Virunga Park is subdivided into 3 sectors: • sector-North directed from the station of Mutsora.
• Sector-Center with Rwindi station
• Sector-South with the Rumangabo station

There is an area of 780,000 hectares, 95% of which are in the Province of North Kivu and the rest in Ituri (Province Orientale). With some 500 guards to monitor the Virunga Park, which has a long border with Rwanda and Uganda, the task is not easy because of the lack of financial, material and / or human resources available to it. Congolese Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICCN). Thus, each guard is charged on average with the surveillance of more than 1,500 hectares.

It contains active volcanoes and extinct volcanoes, lava fields of various ages, the Ruwenzori massif with the highest peaks at 5,000 m, and a diversity of plant formations. The flora diversifies from the southern end of the park, where savannah reigns with incursions of fluvial forest, at the northern end, where a closed dry forest is dominated by Euphorbia dawei.

The combination of the different altitudes, with the location of the Ruwenzori massif at the point where the Sudano-Guinean and East African floristic zones meet, gives a very interesting plant diversity. Wildlife diversity is comprised of herds of elephants, hippos and buffaloes, families of mountain gorillas, delineators (lions, leopards) and birds (Zaire ecological profile, 1988).

The tourist facilities are quite well developed and an excellent modern hotel at the Rwindi provides a comfortable base from which one can make excursions on the roads and tracks of the park. Mandatory official guides are available for visitors to guide and ensure their safety. There is also a research station in Lulimbi, on the shores of Lake Edward, where studies are carried out on the flora and fauna of the Virunga Park, but also on the regional and Eurasian migratory birds that are the subject of luggage. and follow up.

This biological diversity is threatened by various anthropogenic actions: agriculture, breeding, poaching, uncontrolled bush fires, logging for energy-wood, etc. The massive influx of Rwandan refugees has had a multiplier effect on the aforementioned threats.

Kahuzi-Biega National Park

The Kahuzi-Biega National Park was established by Law-Ordinance No. 70-316 of November 30, 1970, and Ordinance-Law No. 75-238 of July 22, 1975 modified its boundaries. It has an area of 600,000 hectares, three quarters of which are in the Province of South Kivu and constitute the operational part of the park. It is recognized by UNESCO as heritage of humanity.

It attracts tourists because of its richness in large mammals and also because of attractive vegetation, staged according to the altitudinal limits. Its main attraction is undoubtedly the population of mountain gorillas, some groups of which are so well accustomed to the presence of humans that it is possible to approach them (ecological profile of Zaire, 1988).

Given the proximity of the city of Bukavu to this park (about 50 km), there are no hotel facilities, but there is a base camp for forest guards, which number about sixty , about 10,000 hectares to watch by guard. The main threats observed at Kahuzi-Biega Park relate to poaching and encroachment of local populations on agricultural land.

Maiko National Park

Ordinance-Law No. 70-317 of 30 November 1970 establishes the Ma?ko National Park, which covers three administrative provinces (Province Orientale, Maniema and North Kivu), with an area of 1,083,000 hectares. fifth is in North Kivu.

It is a large, largely undeveloped park and considered one of the six virgin primary equatorial forests. Between the Umbophylian forest of the Central Cuvette and the upland mountainous forest of the eastern part of North Kivu, this dense and humid forest is between 700 and 1,300 m above sea level.

The total absence of roads, a very high rainfall (there is practically no dry season) making the tracks impassable and the remoteness of towns and agglomerations protected the Maiko Park. Among the fauna of Maiko, there are three kinds of animals rarest in Congo: mountain gorilla, okapi and Congolese peacock. Other animals represented are duikers, sylvicons, elephants, forest buffaloes and leopards (Ecological Profile of Zaire, 1988).

There is no tourist facility in the park and the part in North Kivu Province is so isolated that it is not operational. Nevertheless, poaching and logging activities are on a reduced scale because of the distance of consumption centers from hunting and logging products.

Tourism

North Kivu is a tourist province par excellence because of the variety of fauna and flora, but also its rugged terrain dotted with lakes and rivers. It should be noted that the roads are in total degradation and access to the various sites is hypothetical.

It is important to note that tourism has stopped in North Kivu since the 90s because of insecurity and the various wars that have followed each other in the Province. So the tourist infrastructure has stopped working.

Airway

a) Goma International Airport
Length: 3.000 m
Width: 45 m
Resistance: 60 T
Terminal capacity: 300 PAY per hour.

With the volcanic eruption of January 2002, the length of the track is reduced by volcanic lava at about 1800 m. The tarmac is inaccessible to aircraft that stop in the middle of the runway. The Province has only one large airport.

Energy

In rural areas, domestic energy is supplied 98% by firewood and embers and 2% by oil. The City of GOMA is supplied with electrical energy by the Ruzizi Hydroelectric Dam in South Kivu.

Mines and industries

The Province of North Kivu has a low mining potential compared to other provinces of the country such as Katanga, Kasa? or Province Orientale. However, this potential is not negligible, since the subsoil of North Kivu has been extracted since colonial times: cassiterite (tin oxide), colombo-tantalite (mixed tantalum oxide) and niobium formerly called colombium of wolframite, monazite and gold.

The two large deposits of pyrochlore (niobium ore) known in the Democratic Republic of Congo are located in North Kivu: Bingo 25 km west of Beni and Lueshe 80 km as the crow flies north of Goma and has been operated by SOMIKIVU since 1986.

In addition, the waters of Lake Kivu contain, in the dissolved state, nearly 50 billion cubic meters of still unexploited methane gas, which is a co-ownership of two states: the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda.

Diamond clues are reported in Lubero Territory (Mukene, Kinyavuyiri, Kilau, Kasisi and Kimbulu) and in Walikale Territory (Angoa, Amapima, Tchungu, Kasangano, Makwatima, Apiti, Tunisia / Muswane and Kabombo). Other platinum and silver showings and some semi-precious stones such as tourmaline, amethyst exist in several places in the territories of Walikale and Lubero. Finally, it should be noted that the mining potential of North Kivu is poorly evaluated for lack of systematic prospecting.

In North Kivu, the artisanal production of coltan boomed in 2000-2001, following a very strong increase in tantalum prices on the world market. Indeed, while this course was $ 33-45 / lb Ta2O5 in November 1999, it increased from $ 60 / lb Ta2O5 in January 2000 to reach its highest level in history at $ 350 / lb Ta2O5 in December of the same year. Subsequently, tantalum prices plummeted in 2001 to under $ 20 / lb Ta2O5.

The collapse of coltan prices has led to a massive abandonment of the exploitation of this substance by the artisanal miners, commonly called "diggers".

Thus between 2002 and 2003, artisanal mining activity in North Kivu, at least in the southern part, was repressed. In the meantime tin prices which were at their lowest (between $ 3,700 / ton in February 2002 and $ 5,000 / ton in August 2003) have risen significantly to around $ 9,000 / ton of tin at mid-year in progress. Another factor added to this consolidation of tin at the London Metal Exchange (LME) is the discovery of an important pouch rich in cassiterite (tin oxide) at Bisiye in the Wassa Groupement in Walikale Territory.

The factories in North Kivu essentially process agricultural products. We retain in particular:
• ENRA in Beni for logging;
• The factories of the National Coffee Office for processing coffee in Beni;
• CAPACO for the processing of papain and coffee in Beni;
• The Kivu Beverage Company (COBKI) for the production of sweet drinks in Butembo;
• ZTM company in Masisi for tea production;
• The Domaine de Katale company for coffee in Rutshuru;
• SOTRAKI factory in Goma for coffee;
• ALPHA SHOES IS in Goma for plastic products and furniture.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

1. BAKUTU MAKANI, Technical Synthesis Report of the North Kivu Region, Kinshasa, September 1990.
2. BITUMAZALA, Food Production and Crop Production Statistics 1988, Goma, January 1990.
3. Cabinet of the Governor, Final Report of the Provincial Conference on Reconstruction of North Kivu, January 1998.
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